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5.4.•“®ŽŒ
•“®ŽŒ (Auxiliary verb) ‚Í–@¤‘Š‚È‚Ç‚Ì•¶–@“I‹@”\‚ð’S‚¢¤ˆÓ–¡‚ð’S‚¤–{“®ŽŒ‚Æ‹¤‚É—p‚¢‚é¡
ù •s’莌‚ðŒã’u‚·‚éê‡
•“®ŽŒ‚É‚Í’¼Œã‚ÉŒ´Œ`•s’莌‚ð’u‚­‚à‚Ì‚Æ to•s’莌‚ð’u‚­‚à‚Ì‚ª‚ ‚é¡’†‚Å‚à‰Â”\¥‹`–±¥—\’è‚ȂǤ˜bŽÒ‚̈ӎv‚ð•\‚·‚à‚Ì‚Í–@•“®ŽŒ (Modal auxiliary) ‚ƌĂ΂ꤏ•“®ŽŒ‚Ì’†‚Å‚àŽg—p‚Ì•p“x‚ª‚‚¢¡ –@•“®ŽŒ‚Ì—á:can, will, shall, may, must, need, dare
ŒÃ‰pŒê¥’†‰pŒêŠú‚ɤˆê”Ê“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽg—p‚³‚ê‚Ä‚«‚½‚à‚Ì‚ª“]‚¶‚ď•“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚È‚Á‚½‚à‚Ì‚ª‚ ‚éi—á:can©cunnan ¢`‚Å‚«‚飁j¡must ‚ðœ‚­–@•“®ŽŒ‚͉ߋŽŒ`‚ðŽ‚¿¤–{“®ŽŒ‚Ì‘ã‚í‚è‚ÉŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚ð‚µ‚Ä‰ß‹ŽŽž§‚ð•\‚·¡ —á:Once I could swim very well.¢Ž„‚Í‚©‚‚ĤãŽè‚­‰j‚°‚½¡£
‰pŒê‚É‚ÍŒ³—ˆ–¢—ˆŽž§‚Í‘¶Ý‚µ‚È‚¢‚ª¤will, shall, be going to ‚ð—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä–¢—ˆ‚ð•\‚¹‚é¡
ù •ªŽŒ‚ðŒã’u‚·‚éê‡
•ªŽŒ‚ðŒã’u‚·‚鏕“®ŽŒ‚É‚Í have, be ‚ª‚ ‚褊eX‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒ¥Œ»Ý•ªŽŒ‚ÆŒ‹‚т‚¢‚ÄŠ®—¹‘Š¥is‘Š‚ðŒ`¬‚·‚é¡‚±‚̏ꍇ have, be ‚ÍŽåŒê‚̐lÌ¥”¥Žž§‚ɑΉž‚µ‚Ĉê”Ê“®ŽŒ‚̏ꍇ‚Æ“¯—l‚ÌŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚ð‚·‚é¡
ù ‹^–╶‚Ɣے蕶‚ÌŒ`¬
ù •“®ŽŒ‚ª–³‚¢•¶‚̏ꍇ
•“®ŽŒ‚ª–³‚¢m’蕶‚ð‹^–╶¥”ے蕶‚É‚·‚é‚ɂͤ•“®ŽŒ do ‚ð—p‚¢‚é¡‚»‚̏ꍇ‚Ì do ‚ÍŽåŒê‚̐lÌ¥”¥Žž§‚ɑΉž‚µ‚ÄŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚·‚é¡‚»‚̍ۂ̌ꏇ‚ͤ‹^–╶‚̏ꍇ¢•“®ŽŒ do ¨ŽåŒê ¨–{“®ŽŒ£‚Æ‚È‚é¡ —á:Do you swim? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚¬‚Ü‚·‚©H£
—á:Does he swim? ¢”ނ͉j‚¬‚Ü‚·‚©H£
—á:Did you swim? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚¬‚Ü‚µ‚½‚©H£
‚½‚¾‚µbe“®ŽŒ‚ƌÕ—‚Ȳ·Þؽ‰pŒê‚É‚¨‚¯‚鏊—L‚ð•\‚· have ‚ͤdo ‚ðŽg‚킸‚ÉŽåŒê‚Æ“|’u‚³‚¹‚Ä‹^–╶‚ðì‚é¡ —á:Are you a swimmer? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉jŽÒ‚Å‚·‚©H£
—á:Have you a pen? ¢ÍßÝ‚ðŽ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·‚©H£iŒÃ•—‚Ȳ·Þؽ‰pŒê‚Ì‚Ý¡‚½‚¾‚µ‹ï‘Ì“I‚È¢Š—L£‚̏ꍇ‚ÉŒÀ‚é¡Œ`Ž¿‚ð•\‚·ê‡¤—Ⴆ‚΢Has he blue eyes?£‚Æ‚ÍŒ¾‚í‚È‚¢j
”ے蕶‚̌ꏇ‚Í¢ŽåŒê¨•“®ŽŒ do¨•›ŽŒ not¨–{“®ŽŒ£‚ƂȂ顈ê”Ê‚É do ‚Æ not ‚ªk–ñ‚µ‚Ä don't ‚É‚È‚é¡‹^–╶‚Æ“¯—l¤be ‚ƌÕ—‚Ȳ·Þؽ‰pŒê‚É‚¨‚¯‚é have ‚ͤdo ‚ð—p‚¢‚È‚¢¡ —á:I do not swim. ¢Ž„‚͉j‚¬‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£
—á:He does not swim. ¢”ނ͉j‚¬‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£
—á:You did not swim. ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚¬‚Ü‚¹‚ñ‚Å‚µ‚½¡£
—á:I am not a swimmer. ¢Ž„‚͉jŽÒ‚Å‚Í‚ ‚è‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£
—á:I have not any money. ¢Ž„‚Í‚¨‹à‚ð‚Ü‚Á‚½‚­Ž‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£iŒÃ•—‚Ȳ·Þؽ‰pŒê‚̂݁j
ù •“®ŽŒ‚ª‚ ‚镶‚̏ꍇ
•“®ŽŒ‚ª‚ ‚ém’蕶‚ð‹^–╶‚É‚·‚é‚ɂͤ•“®ŽŒ‚ðŽåŒê‚Ì’¼‘O‚É’u‚«Œê‡‚𢏕“®ŽŒ - ŽåŒê - –{“®ŽŒ£‚É‚·‚é¡ —á:Can you swim? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚°‚Ü‚·‚©H£
—á:Are you driving a car? ¢‰^“]’†‚Å‚·‚©H£
‚Ü‚½¤•“®ŽŒ‚Ì’¼Œã‚É•›ŽŒ not ‚ð’u‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚æ‚è”ے蕶‚ðŒ`¬‚·‚é¡am ‚Æ may ‚ðœ‚«¤n't ‚ðŠÜ‚ޏk–ñŒ`‚ª‚ ‚é¡‚½‚¾‚µŒûŒê•\Œ»‚Å‚Í mayn't ‚Æ‚¢‚¤Œ`‚Í‘¶Ý‚µ¤‚Ü‚½Ó‚¯‚½•\Œ»‚Å‚Í‚ ‚é‚à‚Ì‚Ì am not¨ain't ‚Æ‚¢‚¤•\Œ»‚ª‚ ‚é¡ —á:I will not swim. ¢Ž„‚͉j‚¬‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£
—á:I am not driving a car. ¢‰^“]’†‚Å‚Í‚ ‚è‚Ü‚¹‚ñ¡£
ù ‹^–â”ے蕶‚ÌŒ`¬
”ے蕶‚ð‚³‚ç‚É‹^–╶‚É‚·‚é‚ɂͤ•“®ŽŒ‚ðŽåŒê‚Ì‘O‚Ɉړ®‚·‚é¡‚±‚ÌŽž¤n't ‚ðŠÜ‚ޏk–ñŒ`‚Í1Œê‚ÆŒ©‚È‚·¡ —á:Don't you swim? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚ª‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£
—á:Aren't you driving a car? ¢‰^“]’†‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£
d‚¢•\Œ»‚ł͏k–ñŒ`‚ðŽg‚í‚È‚¢‚ª¤‚±‚ÌŽž¤not ‚ÍŒ³‚̈ʒu‚É—¯‚Ü‚é¡am ‚Æ may ‚͏k–ñŒ`‚ª–³‚¢‚̂Ť•K‚¸‚±‚ÌŒ`Ž®‚É‚È‚é¡ —á:Do you not swim? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚ª‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£
—á:Are you not a swimmer? ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉jŽÒ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£
ù ”Û’è–½—ß•¶‚ÌŒ`¬
“®ŽŒ‚ÌŽí—Þ‚É‚©‚©‚í‚炸 don't (= do not) ‚𕶓ª‚É’u‚­¡i‚‚܂è be ‚ðˆê”Ê“®ŽŒ‚ÆŒ©‚È‚·‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚±‚Æ¡‚±‚ê‚Í–½—ß•¶‚Í–@‚ÌŽí—Þ‚Å‚Ý‚é‚Æ–½—ß–@‚ÉŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚邽‚߁j•›ŽŒ‚Ì never ‚ð—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚é¡ —á:Don't swim. ¢‰j‚®‚È£
—á:Don't be surprised. ¢‹Á‚©‚È‚¢‚Å‚Ë£
—á:Never mind.¢‹C‚É‚·‚é‚È£
ù •t‰Á‹^–╶‚ÌŒ`¬
•“®ŽŒ‚Æ‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚©‚ç‚È‚é2Œê‚Ì‹^–╶‚𕶖–‚É•t‰Á‚µ¤•t‰Á‹^–╶‚ðŒ`¬‚·‚é¡•t‰Á‹^–╶‚Å‚Í•¶’†‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚Æ“¯ˆê‚ÌŽž§¤‘Š‚ð‚Æ‚é¡‚È‚¨¤s‚·‚镶‚ªm’蕶‚̏ꍇ‚Í•t‰Á‹^–╶‚͔ے蕶‚ƂȂ褐æs‚·‚镶‚ª”ے蕶‚̏ꍇ‚Í•t‰Á‹^–╶‚ªm’蕶‚ƂȂ顂‚܂èæs•¶‚ƍm’襔ےè‚ÌŠÖŒW‚ð‹t“]‚³‚¹‚é¡ —á:He will study English, won't he? ¢”ނ͉pŒê‚ð•×‹­‚µ‚Ü‚·‚ˁH£
—á:He is studying English, isn't he? ¢”ނ͉pŒê‚ð•×‹­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·‚ˁH£
—á:He won't study English, will he? ¢”ނ͉pŒê‚ð•×‹­‚µ‚Ü‚¹‚ñ‚ˁH£
—á:He isn't studying English, is he? ¢”ނ͉pŒê‚ð•×‹­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚¹‚ñ‚ˁH£
‚±‚Ì‚Æ‚«d‚¢•\Œ»‚Å‚Ì•t‰Á”Û’è‹^–╶‚łͤã‹L‚̒ʂ菕“®ŽŒ¨ŽåŒê¨not‚̌ꏇ‚Æ‚È‚é¡‚æ‚Á‚Ä I ‚ðŽåŒê‚Æ‚µ‚½•¶‚Å‚Í `, am I not? ‚Æ‚È‚é‚킯‚Å‚ ‚邪¤Œ˜‚·‚¬‚é‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŒûŒê‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Í `, don't you think? “™‚ÆŒ¾‚¢Š·‚¦‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚é¡
ù “®ŽŒ‚Ì‹­’²
•“®ŽŒ do ‚ð–{“®ŽŒ‚Ì‘O‚É’u‚¢‚Ä“®ŽŒ‚ð‹­’²‚·‚é¡ —á:I do swim. ¢i‰j‚ª‚È‚¢‚È‚ñ‚Ä‚±‚Æ‚Í‚ ‚è‚Ü‚¹‚ñj–{“–‚ɉj‚¬‚Ü‚·£
‚±‚Ì—p–@‚Í•½–•¶‚Å‚Íbe“®ŽŒ‚ÉŽg‚¦‚È‚¢‚ª¤–½—ß•¶‚Å‚ÍŽg‚¦‚é¡ —á:Do be prepared. ¢‚µ‚Á‚©‚菀”õ‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚­‚¾‚³‚¢¡£
ù ‹^–╶‚ɑ΂·‚é‰ñ“š‚ÅŒ³‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚ð‘ã•\‚·‚é
‚±‚Ì—p–@‚Ì do ‚Í“Á‚É¢‘ã“®ŽŒ£‚ƌĂ΂ê‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚é¡ —á:Do you swim? / Yes, I do. ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚ª‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£ ¢‚Í‚¢¤‰j‚¬‚Ü‚·¡£
—á:Can't you swim? / Yes, I can. ¢‚ ‚È‚½‚͉j‚°‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚©H£ ¢‰j‚°‚Ü‚·¡£
“ú–{Œê‚ƈႢ¤‹^–₪m’è“I‚Å‚ ‚é‚©”Û’è“I‚Å‚ ‚é‚©‚ÉŠÖ‚í‚炸‰ñ“š‚ªm’蕶‚È‚ç‚Î yes¤”ے蕶‚È‚ç‚Î no ‚Å“š‚¦‚éi“ú–{Œê‚̏ꍇ‚̉ñ“š‚Ì¢‚Í‚¢£¢‚¢‚¢‚¦£‚ÍŽ¿–âŽÒ‚̍l‚¦‚̐³”Û‚ð“š‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚éj¡
ù “ñd”Û’è
Œ»‘ã‰pŒê‚Ì‹K”Í•¶–@‚łͤ“ñd”Û’è‚͍m’è‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚é¡”Û’è‚ð”Û’è‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä‹­‚¢m’è‚ð•\‚·ê‡‚Ì‘¼‚ɤ‚½‚ß‚ç‚¢‚ȂǘbŽÒ‚Ì”÷–­‚ÈŠ´î‚ð•\Œ»‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éê‡‚ª‚ ‚é¡ I've never done anything illegal.¢ˆá–@‚È‚±‚Æ‚ð‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚È‚ñ‚©ˆê“x‚à‚È‚¢£¡
I'm not uninterested in marrying you.¢ŒN‚Æ‚ÌŒ‹¥‚É‹»–¡‚ª‚È‚¢‚킯‚¶‚á‚È‚¢‚ñ‚¾‚棡[4]
17¢‹IˆÈ‘O‚̉pŒê‚⤍¡“ú‚Å‚àˆê•”‚Ì’nˆæ•ûŒ¾¤‚Ü‚½•l‰pŒê‚É‘ã•\‚³‚ê‚éŽÐ‰ï•ûŒ¾“™‚łͤ“ñd”Û’è‚͔ےè‚Ì‹­’²‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŽg‚í‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚é¡Î߯ÌߥЭ°¼Þ¯¸‚ɂ͏­‚È‚©‚炸Œ©‚ç‚ê‚é•\Œ»‚Å‚ ‚é¡ We don't need no education.¢‹³ˆç‚È‚ñ‚©•K—v‚È‚¢£i=We don't need any education.)[5]
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http://m.rakuten.co.jp/
[4]‘OÍß°¼Þ
(5.3.“®ŽŒ)
[6]ŽŸÍß°¼Þ
(5.5.‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì•iŽŒ)

4. ‰pŒê‚Ì•êŒê˜bŽÒŠÔ‚łͤ‚±‚̂悤‚Ȕےè‚̐ړªŽ«iun-, in-, dis- ‚Ȃǁj‚Ì•t‚­”h¶Œê‚Ì•¶Í‚ͤ“ñd”Û’è‚Æ‘¨‚¦‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢ê‡‚ª‘½‚¢¡—Ⴆ‚Τ‰pŒê”Å‹LŽ–(double negative)‚â¤Betty Azar’˜ Understanding and Using English Grammar ‚łͤ‚±‚̂悤‚È‚à‚Ì‚ð—á‚ð‚µ‚Ä‹“‚°‚Ä‚¨‚炸¤‘‚¶‚Ä“ñd”Û’è‚Í‹ÖŽ~‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Æ‚·‚é¡
5. Ëßݸ¥ÌÛ²Äނ̱Żް¥ÌÞد¸¥²Ý¥»Þ¥³«°Ù‚Ì—L–¼‚Ȉêß¡

ù~–ÚŽŸ‚É–ß‚é
o“T:Wikipedia
2017/09/09 16:30
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