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5.3.“®ŽŒ
ˆê”Ê“®ŽŒ (Ordinary verb) ‚ͤ–@ (Mood) ¤” (Number) ¤lÌ (Person) ‚É‚æ‚銈—p‚ð‚قڏÁŽ¸‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚褎OlÌ’P”Œ»ÝŒ`‚Å(-(e)s‚ª•t‚³‚ê‚邾‚¯‚Å‚ ‚é¡Žž§ (Tense) ‚É‚æ‚é•Ï‰»‚Í•s‹K‘¥•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚ÍŒ»ÝŒ`¤‰ß‹ŽŒ`¤‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`‚Å‚»‚ꂼ‚ê•Ï‰»‚·‚邪i—á:rise/rose/risen ¢¸‚飁j¤‹K‘¥•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚ł͉ߋŽŒ`¤‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`‚É -ed Œê”ö‚ª•t‚³‚ê‚é‚Ì‚Ý‚Æ‚È‚éi—á:walk/walked/walked ¢•à‚­£j¡‚Ü‚½¤“®–¼ŽŒ (Gerund) ¥Œ»Ý•ªŽŒ (Present participle) ‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Í‘S‚Ä‚Ì“®ŽŒ‚É‚¨‚¢‚ÄŒ´Œ` (Bare form) ‚É -ing Œê”ö‚ð•t‚·‚ê‚Ηǂ¢¡ Œ»Ý•ªŽŒ‚â‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒ‚ÍŒ`—eŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ĉµ‚í‚ê‚é¡
Ì×ݽŒê (-er, -ir) ‚âÄ޲Œê (-en) ‚ƈႢ¤•s’èŒ` (Infinitive) ‚Ɉꌩ‚µ‚Ä“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚í‚©‚é’Ô‚è‚ÌŒ`‚Í‚È‚¢¡‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚Ä‚ ‚é’PŒê‚ÌŒ´Œ`‚ª—^‚¦‚ç‚ꂽ‚Æ‚«¤“®ŽŒ‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©”»’f‚·‚éŽè’i‚Í‚È‚¢¡‚±‚Ì‚½‚ߌêŒ`‚ð•Ï‚¦‚¸‚É•iŽŒ‚Ì“]Š·‚ª—eˆÕ‚Å‚ ‚é¡—á:smoke ‚Í–¼ŽŒ‚Å‚Í¢‰Œ£¢ÀÊÞº‚̈ꕞ£‚¾‚ª¤‚»‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü“®ŽŒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä¢‰Œ‚ðo‚·£¢ÀÊÞº‚ð‹z‚¤£‚Æ‚àŽg‚¦‚é¡
¡–@
‰pŒê‚Ì–@‚Í’¼à–@¤‰¼’è–@¤–½—ß–@¤ðŒ–@‚ª‘¶Ý‚·‚é¡
ù ’¼à–@ (Indicative|)
ˆê”Ê“®ŽŒ‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ă͉ߋŽŒ`¤‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`¤Œ»Ý•ªŽŒŒ`¤“®–¼ŽŒ¤ŽOlÌ’P”Œ»ÝŒ`ˆÈŠO‚Å‚Í–Ú‚ÉŒ©‚¦‚éŒ`‚ÅŠˆ—p‚¹‚¸¤ŽÀŽ¿Œ´Œ`‚ð—p‚¢‚é¡
ù ‰¼’è–@ (Subjunctive)
’†‰pŒêŠúˆÈ‘O‚܂łͤŒ»Ý¥‰ß‹Ž‚Ì‚¢‚¸‚ê‚ÌŽž§‚Å‚àŒ»‚꤂»‚ꂼ‚êŒÅ—L‚ÌŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚ð‚à‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚½‚ª¤Œ»‘ã‚ł͉¼’è–@Ž©‘Ì‚â‚â“ÁŽê‚È—p–@‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é¡ if ‚È‚Ç‚ð—p‚¢‚½ðŒß (Conditional clause) “à‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ă͈ê”Ê“®ŽŒ‚ð‰ß‹ŽŒ`‚ɤbe“®ŽŒ‚̏ꍇ‚Í were ‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä–@‚ð•\Œ»‚µiŒ»Ý‚ÌŒûŒê‚Å‚ÍŽåŒê‚ª you ˆÈŠO‚Ì’P”‚̏ꍇ was ‚ª—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éj¤ðŒßˆÈŠO‚ł͏•“®ŽŒ‚̉ߋŽŒ`i—á:would, could, might, shouldj‚ð—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\Œ»‚·‚顉¼’è–@–{—ˆ‚Ì“®ŽŒ•Ï‰»‚ªÁŽ¸‚µ‚½‚½‚ß‚É‚±‚̂悤‚ÈŒ`‚Å•\Œ»‚·‚é‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚邪¤‚»‚Ì‚¹‚¢‚Å“®ŽŒ‚ÌŒêŒ`•Ï‰»‚Å•\‚³‚ê‚鎞§‚Ƥ‰¼’è–@‚É‚æ‚Á‚ď–q‚³‚ê‚鎞§‚ɽÞڂª¶‚¶‚é¡ —á:If I were a bird, I could fly into the sky. ¢‚à‚µŽ„‚ª’¹‚È‚ç‚Τ‹ó‚ÉŒü‚©‚Á‚Ä”ò‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚¯‚é‚Ì‚¾‚ª¡£
‚±‚ê‚𢉼’è–@‰ß‹Ž£‚Æ‚¢‚¢¤–q‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚ÍŒ»Ý‚̏ó‘Ô¥“®ì‚Å‚ ‚é¡
‰¼’è–@‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĉߋŽ‚̏ó‘Ô¥“®ì‚ð–q‚·‚é‚ɂͤŽŸ‚̂悤‚ȍ\‘¢‚ð—p‚¢‚é¡ —á:If I had been a bird, I could have flown into the sky. ¢‚à‚µŽ„‚ª’¹‚¾‚Á‚½‚È‚ç‚Τ‹ó‚ÉŒü‚©‚Á‚Ä”ò‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚¯‚½‚Ì‚¾‚ª¡£
ðŒß“à‚𢏕“®ŽŒ have ‚̉ߋŽŒ` had+‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒ£‚Æ‚µ¤Žåß (Main clause) “à‚𢏕“®ŽŒ‰ß‹ŽŒ`+•“®ŽŒ have+‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒ£‚Æ‚·‚é¡‚±‚ê‚𢉼’è–@‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹£‚Æ‚¢‚¤¡
‰¼’è–@‚ÌðŒß‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä if ‚ðŽg‚킸¤•“®ŽŒ‚ð“|’u‚³‚¹‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚µ‚΂µ‚΂ ‚é¡ —á:Had I had the money, I could have made my fortune. ¢‚ ‚Ì‹à‚³‚¦‚ ‚ê‚΂ЂƂâ‚Ü’z‚¯‚½‚Ì‚É¡£
ù –½—ß–@ (Imperative)
“®ŽŒ‚ðŒ´Œ`‚Å•¶ (Sentence) ‚̍ŏ‰‚É’u‚­‚±‚Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\Œ»‚·‚é¡–½—ß–@ˆÈŠO‚Å‚Í•¶“ª‚É“®ŽŒ‚ÌŒ´Œ`‚ª’u‚©‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç–³‚¢¡ —á:Be quiet. ¢Ã‚©‚É‚µ‚È‚³‚¢£ Go to school. ¢ŠwZ‚ɍs‚¯£ Open the window. ¢‘‹‚ðŠJ‚¯‚È‚³‚¢£
¡Žž§
‰pŒê‚ÌŠî–{“I‚ÈŽž§‚Í”ñ‰ß‹Ž (Nonpast) ‚ƉߋŽ (Past) ‚Ì“ñ‚‚ł ‚é¡‚±‚ê‚͹ÞÙÏ݌êŒnŒ¾Œê‚É‹¤’Ê‚·‚é“Á’¥‚Å‚ ‚顉ߋŽŒ`‚Í•s‹K‘¥•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ă͌ꊲ•Ï‰»‚Ť‹K‘¥•Ï‰»“®ŽŒ‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Í -ed Œê”ö‚ð•t‚µ‚Ä•\Œ»‚·‚é¡–{—ˆ‰pŒê‚É‚Í–¢—ˆŽž§‚ª‚È‚¢‚̂Ť–¢—ˆ‚Ì‚±‚Æ‚ð•\Œ»‚·‚é‚Æ‚«‚Í–@‚̏•“®ŽŒ will, shall ‚ð—p‚¢‚Ä•\Œ»‚µ‚½‚è be going to ‚Æ‚¢‚¤Šµ—p•\Œ»‚ð—p‚¢‚½‚è‚·‚é¡’¼‹ß‚Ì—\’è‚ÍŒ»ÝisŒ`‚Å•\Œ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚é¡
‰pŒê‚ÌŽž§¤–@¤‘Š¤‘Ԃ͈ȉº‚̂悤‚ÉŒ‹‚т‚­¡
Žž§¤–@ (will) ¤Š®—¹¤is‚ªŠe2’Ê‚è‚ ‚é‚̂ŤŽÀŽ¿“I‚ÈŽžŠÔ•\Œ»‚Í16’Ê‚è‚ ‚é¡•s’莌‚Å‚Í‘Š‚¨‚æ‚Ñ‘Ô‚µ‚©Žg‚¦‚È‚¢¡–{—ˆ‚ÌŽž§‚Ì‘¼¤will ‚É‚æ‚é–¢—ˆ•\Œ»‚àŽž§‚É“ü‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚é¡‚±‚̏ꍇ¤Œ»Ý (-?) ¤‰ß‹Ž (-ed) ¤–¢—ˆ (will) ¤‰ß‹Ž–¢—ˆ (would) ‚ƌĂ΂ê‚é¡
¡‘Š
‰pŒê‚Ì‘Š (Aspect) ‚ͤŠ®—¹‘Š (Perfect aspect) ‚Ɛis‘Š (Progressive aspect) ‚ª‘¶Ý‚·‚é¡
ù Š®—¹‘Š
¢•“®ŽŒ have + ‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`“®ŽŒ£‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\‚³‚ê‚顏•“®ŽŒ have ‚ð‰ß‹ŽŒ` had ‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚褊®—¹‘Š‚ÌŽž§‚ð•\Œ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚é¡ Œ»ÝŠ®—¹‚Ì—á:She has gone to India.¢”ޏ—‚ͲÝÄނ֍s‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½¡£
‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹‚Ì—á:He said that she had gone to India.¢”ނͤ”ޏ—‚ª²ÝÄނɍs‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½‚Ì‚¾‚ÆŒ¾‚Á‚½¡£
‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹‚ð—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚褊Ԑژb–@’†‚É‚¨‚¢‚ĤŽž§‚̍·ˆÙ‚ð•\Œ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é¡‚±‚ê‚ð¢‘å‰ß‹Ž£‚Æ‚à‚¢‚¤¡
Œ»ÝŠ®—¹‚ƉߋŽŽž§‚Ƃ̈Ⴂ‚ͤŒãŽÒ‚ª‰ß‹Ž‚É‚¨‚¯‚鎖ŽÀ‚ð–q‚·‚é‚ɉ߂¬‚È‚¢‚̂ɑ΂µ¤‘OŽÒ‚͉ߋŽ‚̍sˆ×‚ªŒ»Ý‚É‹y‚Ú‚·‰e‹¿‚ðŠÜ‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚邱‚Æ¡‚µ‚½‚ª‚Á‚ÄŒ»ÝŠ®—¹‚ÍŒoŒ±‚âŒp‘±‚ð•\‚·‚Ì‚ÉŽg‚í‚ê‚é¡ Œ»ÝŠ®—¹‚Ì—á:She has gone to India.¢”ޏ—‚ͲÝÄނ֍s‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½i‚»‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü–ß‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢j¡£
‰ß‹Ž‚Ì—á:She went to India.¢”ޏ—‚ͲÝÄނɍs‚Á‚½i‚à‚¤–ß‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚é‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚È‚¢‚µ¤–ß‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚È‚¢j¡£
Œ»ÝŠ®—¹‚Ì—á:She has lived in India.¢”ޏ—‚ͲÝÄނɏZ‚ñ‚¾ŒoŒ±‚ª‚ ‚飂܂½‚Í¢”ޏ—‚ͲÝÄނɁiŒ»Ý‚ÉŽŠ‚é‚܂ŁjZ‚Ý‘±‚¯‚Ä‚¢‚é¡£
‰ß‹Ž‚Ì—á:She lived in India.¢”ޏ—‚́i‰ß‹Ž‚Ì‚ ‚鎞“_‚Łj²ÝÄނɏZ‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚½iŒ»Ý‚Ç‚±‚ɏZ‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚é‚©‚͏–q‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢j¡£
ŒÃ‚­‚ÍŽ©“®ŽŒ‚ÌŠ®—¹‘Š‚Í¢•“®ŽŒbe + ‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`“®ŽŒ£‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½¡Œ»Ý‚Å‚à­”‚ÌŽ©“®ŽŒ‚ÍŠµ—p“I‚É‚±‚ÌŒ`‚ð‚Æ‚é¡¢­”£‚Æ‚Í‚¢‚¦¤Šµ—p‚É‚æ‚è•po‚Å‚ ‚é¡ —á He is gone. ¢”ނ͍s‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½¡£
—á The sun is set. ¢“ú‚Í’¾‚ñ‚Å‚µ‚Ü‚Á‚½¡£
—á I'm done with it. ¢Ž„‚Í‚à‚¤Ï‚Ý‚Ü‚µ‚½¡£
ù is‘Š
¢•“®ŽŒ be + Œ»Ý•ªŽŒŒ`“®ŽŒ£‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\‚³‚ê‚é¡‚½‚¾‚µ“®ì‚ð•\‚·“®ŽŒ‚µ‚©—p‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚Í‚Å‚«‚È‚¢i—Ⴆ‚Î know ‚â have ‚͏ó‘Ô‚ð•\‚·‚̂ňê”Ê“I‚ɂ͐is‘Š‚É‚È‚ç‚È‚¢j¡‚Ü‚½•“®ŽŒ be ‚ð‰ß‹ŽŒ` was, were ‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚褐is‘Š‚̉ߋŽŽž§‚ð•\Œ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚é¡ Œ»ÝisŒ`‚Ì—á:She is playing tennis.¢”ޏ—‚ÍÃƽ‚ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é¡£
‰ß‹ŽisŒ`‚Ì—á:She was playing tennis.¢”ޏ—‚ÍÃƽ‚ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚½¡£
¡‘Ô
‰pŒê‚Ì‘Ô‚Í”\“®‘Ô (Active voice) ‚ÆŽó“®‘Ô (Passive voice) ‚ª‚ ‚褔\“®‘Ô‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Í“®ŽŒ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\‚³‚ê‚éó‘Ô¥“®ì‚ðŽåŒê‚ªs‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ð•\‚·¡ˆê•ûŽó“®‘ԂͤŽåŒê‚ª‰½‚ç‚©‚Ì“®ì‚𢂳‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚飂±‚Æ‚ð•\‚·¡Žó“®‘Ô‚Í¢•“®ŽŒ be + ‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒ£‚Å•\Œ»‚³‚꤂»‚̏ꍇ‚̐^‚Ì“®ìŽå‚Í by ‚Å“±‚©‚ê‚é‘O’uŽŒ‹å (Prepositional phrase) ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä•\‚³‚ê‚é¡‚½‚¾‚µ¤‘¼“®ŽŒ (Transitive verb) ‚ÉŒÀ’肳‚ꤔ\“®‘Ô‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä–Ú“IŒê‚ðŽæ‚ç‚È‚¢Ž©“®ŽŒ (Intransitive verb) i—áFstand¢—§‚£j‚ÍŽó“®‘Ô‚É‚Å‚«‚È‚¢¡‚Ü‚½¤•“®ŽŒ be ‚ð‰ß‹ŽŒ` was, were ‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚É‚æ‚褎󓮑Ԃ̎ž§‚ð•\Œ»‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚é¡
¢”\“®‘Ô£‚Ì—á:He built the dog house.¢”Þ‚ÍŒ¢¬‰®‚𑢂Á‚½¡£
¢Žó“®‘Ô£‚Ì—á:The dog house was built (by him). ¢Œ¢¬‰®‚ªi”Þ‚É‚æ‚Á‚āj‘¢‚ç‚ꂽ¡£
‚±‚ê‚ç‚Ì–@¥Žž§¥‘Š‚ð‘g‚ݍ‡‚킹‚Ä•¡ŽG‚ÈŽžŠÔŽ²¥“®ì‚Ì•\Œ»‚ð‚·‚é‚±‚Æ‚à˜_—ã‰Â”\‚É‚È‚é¡
—á:He would say that the building had been being built.¢”Þ‚ÍŒ¾‚¤‚¾‚낤¤‚»‚ÌŒš•¨‚ÍŒšÝ’†‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ¡£
iwould ‚͉¼’è–@¤had been ‚ª‰ß‹ŽŠ®—¹Œ`¤been being ‚ªisŒ`¤being built ‚ªŽó“®‘ԁj
¡be“®ŽŒ‚ÌŠˆ—p
Œ´Œ`‚Í be ‚Å‚ ‚顉¼’è–@‰ß‹Ž‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ă͐lÌ‚ÉŠÖŒW‚È‚­ were ‚Æ‚È‚éiŽåŒê‚ª you*ˆÈŠO‚Ì’P”‚̏ꍇ‚Í was ‚ªŽg‚í‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚à‚ ‚éj¡‰ß‹Ž•ªŽŒŒ`‚Í been¤Œ»Ý•ªŽŒ¤“®–¼ŽŒ‚Í being ‚Å‚ ‚é¡
¡lÌ‘ã–¼ŽŒ‚Æbe“®ŽŒ‚ÌŠÖŒW
be“®ŽŒ‚̕ω»‚ÌŽd•û‚Ȃǂɂ‚¢‚Ăͤ‰º‚Ì•\‚ðŽQÆ¡be“®ŽŒ‚͐isŒ`‚É‚àŽg—p‚³‚ê‚é¡
ù —á
I'm Jim. Ž„‚ͼÞтł·¡iI'm=I amj
You're playing soccer. ‚ ‚È‚½‚Í»¯¶°‚ð‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·¡iYou're=You arej
She was young.@”ޏ—‚ÍŽá‚©‚Á‚½¡
It's cold.@Š¦‚¢iIt's=It isj
Is she a teacher?@”ޏ—‚͐搶‚Å‚·‚©?
What are those?@‚ ‚ê‚ç‚͉½‚Å‚·‚©H
Who left their dirty socks on the breakfast table? ’N‚ª’©HŠ÷‚̏ã‚ɉ˜‚ꂽŒC‰º‚ð•ú’u‚µ‚½‚́H
¡“®ŽŒ‚ðŒ´Œ`‚Å—p‚¢‚éê‡
Œ´Œ`‚ÅŽg—p‚·‚éê‡‚à‚ ‚é¡
•“®ŽŒ‚ÌŒã@—á@It must be true.@‚»‚ê‚Í–{“–‚ɈႢ‚È‚¢¡
•s’莌‚Ì‚Æ‚«@—á@Be sure to be there at ten.@10Žž‚É‚Í•K‚¸‚»‚±‚ɍs‚«‚È‚³‚¢¡
–½—ß•¶‚Ì‚Æ‚«@—á@Be quiet.@‚Ç‚¤‚©Ã‚©‚É‚µ‚Ä‚­‚ê¡
—v‹¥’ñˆÄ‚ð•\‚·“®ŽŒ‚ɂ‚­thatß¡‚½‚¾‚µ¤²·Þؽ‰pŒê‚Å‚Íshould+“®ŽŒ‚ÌŒ´Œ`‚ƂȂ顁@—á@I demanded that they (should) be present at all classes. Ž„‚͔ނ炪‚·‚ׂĂ̎ö‹Æ‚ɏo‚邱‚Æ‚ð—v‹‚µ‚½
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