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ފj_
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ފj_p: ribonucleic acid, FRNAǸڵνμ޴ٌōɌqj_łRNAǸڵންݎ_\顊{IɊj_Ƃ (A)ޱ (G)ļ (C)׼ (U) LRNAװɂDNA𒒌^ɂē]ʁij顊eDNÂƑΉĂ邪׼ɑΉRNA͐̓߸sۂɕKv޿̊Sʂ\Ă

̓ł̋\ɂ`RNAiүݼެRNAmRNAj^RNAiݽ̧RNAtRNAj޿RNA (rRNA)ݺިݸRNA (ncRNA)޻޲dRNA (dsRNA) Ȃǂ܂܂ȕނȂ

j[ҏW]

j_ 1868Niɂ1869Njذد˥аɂ蔭ꂽj甭ꂽߤj_Ɩꂽ̌jȂjj_ꂽ̂ς邱Ƃ͂Ȃ1939NTorbj?rn CasperssonJean BrachetJack Schultz ɂRNA߸Ɋ֗^ĂƂ񏥂ꂽ̌ Hubert Chantrenne RNA޿тɑ΂߸`BƂ邱Ƃ𖾂1964Nɂ Robert W. Holley y tRNA ̔zƍ\𖾂1968Nɰِw܂܂1976Nɂ޸ص̧MS2 ضވ`qRNAz񂪌肳ꂽ[1]

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RNÅj_ (A)ޱ (G)ļ (C)׼ (U) 4ō\Ă顱ݤޱݤļ݂ DNA ɂ\邪DNAɂ (T) RNAłͳ׼قɒuĂ褑Iȉͱ݂ƂȂ݂Ƴ׼ق͋м‚”Ɏł

ļ݂wƳ׼قĂ܂ߤDNAłͳ׼ق݂̑p悤ɂȂɂļ݂̕ɂĐĂ܂׼قoC邱Ƃ”\ɂȂȂǂ̗_

ɐwɂĤ̍q̓\ىⱾىȂǂŕω@\┽ω邱Ƃ𢉻wCi邢͒PɢCjƂ[2]RNAɂ͏CȂꂽlXȏCRNA݂ꂼꂪقȂ¡޳ؼi߿޳ؼ, en:Pseudouridine, j2'-O-ىC͔rICłм(T, rT)޳ؼ()tRNATCٰ߂ɂ悭顱ɼ݂Eɉꂽɼ (I) ͤRNAިèݸɂ萶̂tRNA̕ʓٓIɐ̂mޱɼɎ¡ɂ100̏C݂Ă邪Se͉𖾂ĂȂ

RNA͒ʏ{̍ɘAȂǸڵł[3]RNAɈ`qނ̂׽RNAIRNAɺނ̂ϲŽRNAƌĂԡ

{RNA͎Rx\`

RNA̍\IƂĤDNAɂ݂͑Ȃ 2'ʂ۷݂Ƃ̂

DNAƂ̔r[ҏW]

DNARNA͂ƂǸڵ̏d̂łj_ł邪҂̖͖̐̓mɈقȂĂDNA͎Ɋj̒ŏ̒~ϥۑRNA͂̏̈ꎞIȏSDNAƔׂĤKvɉčpx͌łDNARNẢw\̈Ⴂ̈Ӗ邱Ƃ̑͢RNADNAɔׂĕsł飡҂̈̓ẍႢDNA͐ÓIRNA͓IȈۂ^

w\̑[ҏW]

DNARNẢw\̈Ⴂ̑ͤǸڵޒ̓ͤRNAްŤDNA2'ʂ_fŒuꂽ2'-޵ްł_ɂ顂̂ߤDNAłްC2'-ތ^\邪RNAł2'ʂ۷݂̑ɂ藧̏QްC3'-ތ^\顂ɔĤDNAB^点\₷RNAA^点\₷ȂƂႢ顂̌RNÂ点\Ҽެٰނ[ȂϲŰٰނ󂭍LȂ顂点\ɂ‚Ă̏ڍׂͤLd点ɏڂ̂ڂĂ

RNAͤDNAƔrƈʂɕsłRNAɑ݂2'ʐ_̎_fɂǗdq2‚邽ߤႦΤאڂݎ_͐_狁jU󂯤νμ޴ٌ؂ꤎ卽J􂷂ȂDNAƔׂĕsł顂̓礖|̖ImRNA𒼂ɕ邱Ƃ”\ɂȂi޸رł͐זEłԌɂ͕jRNAł1{ɐf`点\ƂȂȂǤlȓ񎟍\O\褈萫𑝂Ă

\鉖ɂႢ褈ʂɤDNAACGTł邪RNAłT̑Uł顂DNAɂUHɐ邱Ƃ褂܂Tł͂ȂUpDNA݂iU-DNAQƁj|I命̐DNA̍\Uł͂ȂTp̂ͤCRɒEɉ邱ƂUɒu邱Ƃ褉zێ邽߂ɤUɕωCƌUłcʂKv邩łTU5ʂ̐fيɒuꂽ\Ă顂܂C͗eՂɐ邱Ƃ͂ȂC̑ɂĐUeՂɎʂł顈ȏDNAłUł͂ȂTpLłƍl

wȊ[ҏW]

DNARNA̕wIɂ‚ġDNARNA͂ƂOłg260nmt߂ɋzɑ230nmt߂ɋzɏ¡̋zx߸280nmƑ傫DNARNA܂мƂėL邽߂ł顂d点`ĂDNȀꍇntMƂ̋zx͑iZFʁjͤDNA͋K2d点\LĂ邽ߤŜ̋zxX̉̋zx̑a菬iWFʁjMɂ2d点\ij_̕ϐjX̉RɂȂ褓ƎɌz邽߂ł顂܂DNARNAͱٶؗntŋقȂRNA͎㉖łeՂɉ邪DNA͈肵đ݂

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RNA͐DNA𒒌^ƂyfRNAװɂ]ɂčsDNAӰziʏ`q̏㗬ɑ݂jɍyf邱Ƃœ]ʂJnDNA̓d点͕ʂ̍yfDNAض̓ɂ1{ɂȂ顂̌RNAװނ^DNA3' 5'ւƈړƓɤ^DNAɑIRNA5' 3'ւƐLĂ܂RNAǂ̕ʂŎ~܂邩DNAzɂ茈肳Ă

RNA𒒌^ƂRNAװނ݂顗ႦΤRNAٽiصٽȂǁj͂̂悤߂RNAװނpĤ̎RNA𑝕顂܂̐̂łͤ̎RNAװނRNAɕKvƂƂmĂ

wIȊ[ҏW]

`RNA (mRNA)[ҏW]

`RNAͤүݼެRNAmRNAƂĂ΂ꤍזE߸ʂł޿DNȀ`RNAł顈`Ƃ߸ꍇɂͤRNAװނ̓ɂDNAɑ΂đIȔzmRNA]ꤎ޿тɂmRNA̔zɊÂ߸̍si|ĵ悤ɤDNARNAւ]RNA𒒌^Ƃ߸ւ|sƂÄ`̗޸ƌĂԡ޸߸`qYł邱ƂOƂĂ邽ߤݺިݸRNA`q̏ꍇɂ͓Ă͂܂ȂƉ߂Ă顈̎Ԃo߂ƤmRNARNAyf̓ɂǸڵւƕ顑̏ꍇmRNA͒Zł邪i咰ۂł͖5ƂĂjMނ̐qɌ悤ɤɒ[ɈmRNAmĂ

^RNA (tRNA)[ҏW]

^RNAͤݽ̧RNAtRNAƂĂ΂߸|̍ۂɤɎ_޿ѓւƓRNAł74-93ȂZRNAł顱Ɏ_ʂƤmRNA̺݂Ɛf邽߂ʂ¡RNAiLQƁj̈ł

޿RNA (rRNA)[ҏW]

޿RNA (rRNA) ͤזE߸s޿\ĂRNAł^j޿тrRNA4{RNA (18S, 5.8S, 28S, 5S) \Ă顂̂3‚jōꤎc1‚͑̕ʂōrRNA͔ɑʂɑ݂RNAł褓T^IȐ^jזEɑ݂RNȀȂƂ80%rRNAƂđ݂ĂitRNA: 10%mRNA: %j

ݺިݸRNA (ncRNA)[ҏW]

ݺިݸRNA (ncRNA) ͤ߸֖|󂳂ȂRNȂ̂ł額łLȂ̂ƂĤOq̉^RNA޿RNA顂2‚͂ǂ|Ɋ֘Âł邪1990N㔼V߂ݺިݸRNA̔ݺިݸRNA͈ȑOlĂdvȖʂÔ\ƍl悤ɂȂ

1990N㔼2000NOɂĤlԂ͂߂Ƃ鍂̍זEł͕Gȓ]ʂsĂƂ؋Ă͐wɂRNAL̈ŤɈ`q߂ɗpĂƂ”\wÊłݺިݸRNÄłϲRNA (miRNA) ͤlԂɎ܂ł̑Ōꤑ̈`q̐ƂdvȖʂĂ邱Ƃ炩ɂȂ

2004NRassoulzadegan̸ٰ߂ͤRNABזEnɉ炩̉eyڂĂƂNatureɓeꂪۂɊmFΤ]`wɑ傫ȉe^DNA-RNA̖⑊ݍpɊւ鑽̓䂪𖾂ƍlĂ2015NݼƱwTracy L. BaleͤqϲRNA̔ʂqɓ`褕e̊l`qɎ󂯌p邱Ƃ𖾂炩ɂ[4]ޏͤϳɉߓxȽڽ^ϳҽϳƌz܂ꂽϳɉߓxȽڽ^Ƃ뤽ڽɑ΂ϐϳȂĂޏͤ̌ƂϲRNAޏ͕eϳ̐qϲRNA̔ʂĂ邱Ƃ𔭌ϲRNA󐸗mRNAj󂵂Ă鎖𖾂炩ɂ̂Ƃͤel`ϲRNAʂĎqɓ`邱ƂĂ

G}pRNA[ҏW]

߸ɂ悭p20̱Ɏ_ƔrƤRNA4‚̊j_Ȃɂ炸RNAyfĂ褂޻޲ (ribozyme = ribose + enzyme) ƌĂ΂ĂRNA̐ؒf⌋sRNAG}݂Ă̍s޿ђłRNAG}SƂȂĂ

dRNA (dsRNA)[ҏW]

dRNA (dsRNA) ͤ2{̑IȔzRNADNAɌ悤ȓdg񂾂̂łdsRNA͂RNAٽ̎ˆ`񕔈ʂĺرDNArRNAtRNAȂǂɌ顐^jłRNÄƂȂsiRNA̒ԑ̂ƂȂĂisiRNAmiRNAƂ΂΍siRNA͓dł邪miRNA1{łjnmiRNAȂǂłͤ1{łĂqͱݍ\镔݂Ă

RNAܰމ[ҏW]

RNAܰͤɂRNA`̈ێi݂DNA̖jƤyf̂悤ȐwIG}̗̖SĂƂ鉼ł顂RNADNAƔrĖIɍ₷ƂȂǂƂȂĂ

̉ł͈`̒}̂ƂRNAgp̌̕ψقƐiɂDNA߸Xɑ䓪ĂƍlĂ顂RNADNAƈđ␫mۂĂ炸C󂯂₷sȕqł褐ɂɕێ@\͎DNAɂƂđĂ顈Ť񐶕̓𕹂ٽłͤтRNAٽƂ׽̂́iųٽȂǁjϲŽ̂́iٴݻ޳ٽȂǁj̗‚Ă2006NݤтƂRNAێĂ̂ͳٽ݂̂łƍlĂ

RNA̍\[ҏW]

@\1{RNAͤ߸Ɠ悤ɓʂȎO\邱Ƃv顎O\̌`łͤf쓮͂ƂȂĂ顓񎟍\ŕ\”\ȢʣƂĤͱٰټޤٰ߂Ȃǂ݂RNA̓񎟍\͐fʂҲ݂Ȃǂ̑gݍ킹Rٷްɂ‚ČvZ߭łx\邱Ƃł

RNA[ҏW]

RNAi(RNA interfernceRNA)ƂsiRNA(small interfering RNA)܂͓{RNA(double stranded RNAdsRNA)ɂĔzٓI`q̔}錻ۂł

MނRNAiҶƽ[ҏW]

{RNA(double stranded RNAdsRNA)DicerƌĂ΂RNase IIIyfɂĖ21`25̒Z{RNAɐؒf顂̒Z{RNAfЂsiRNA(small interfering RNA)ƂԡsiRNAʑ̂RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex)ipjƌĂ΂Argonaute(Ago)߸܂ޕ̂Ɏ荞܂顂̌ޯĂƂȂmRNAƉ΍siRNAi޲ލjc̔΍ł߯ݼެAgo߸ɂĐؒfꕪ顎c޲ލ5f[3f[1Ago߸߹č\ɂ͂܂荞ŌŒ肳顓5f[݂܂ͳ׼قłꍇɂAgo߸ƍeaŒ肳顂ɤ5f[2`8ڂ̉Ago߸̍\Ɠdׂ܂pĕ\ʂɍڂ邱Ƃł顂2`8ڂ̉̕ͼޔzƌĂ΂꤉z̑␫mRNAʂŏɉ΍ꏊł顂̌siRNA͎c9`20ڂޯĂƂȂmRNAƉ΍顉΍mRNAAgo߸ɂĐؒf顂̉ߒ`qɯ޳Ƃ

DicerdsRNAsiRNAւƤ܂pre-miRNAmiRNAւƐؒfRNase IIIyfł

RISC(RNA-induced silencing complex)ͼޮ޴ɂdsRNA𓱓邱ƂɂėUzٓIɕWIRNA𕪉銈̂ƂHannonɂĒ񏥂ꂽRISC̒jƂȂ̂Argonaute(Ago)߸ł顂̑̍\vfƂRNA߸RNAضޤǸڱނȂǗlX߸肳Ă

siRNAmiRNA[ҏW]

ZRNA͗RɂĖ̂قȂ顐lHIɍꂽ̂in vivodsRNAÔ琶̂siRNAƂmiRNA͈`qORNAɗR顂̈`qזEœ̈`qߋ@\𔭊miRNAmiRNA`q璷ꎟ]ʎYłpri-miRNAƂē]ʂpri-miRNA̒ɂ͏miRNAƂȂz񂪊܂܂Ă肻̕ͱݏ̍\ƂĂDroshaƂRNase IIIyfͱݍ\ؒfpre-miRNAɂ顊jpre-miRNAExportin-5ɂčזEɉ^΂זEDicerɂpre-miRNA͐ؒfmiRNAƂȂmiRNARISC`WIRNAF޲ޕqƂē̂悤siRNAmiRNA21O̒̋@\ncRNAłRISC̒siRNAmiRNAwg@\Ō邱Ƃ͂ł܂ŗRŕނ

RNAi̖_[ҏW]

ޯĈ`qɑ΂}ʂɉļޗ݂̈̂΍`qQޯČʂƌĂ΂@\ɂė}ꍇޯČʂłmRNA͐ؒf̂ł͂Ȃ|󂪗}邱ƂɂĈ`q@\}ƍlĂ

MזE30bpȏ̒dsRNA𓱓ƈꕔ̍זEWcĂقƂǂ̍זEōזEN顂̪܂͍RٽƂ΂ި̪ݽ@\ƍlĂ

[ҏW]

Ǹڵт̌̂łǸڵޤDNARNAȂǂފj_ͤƂقƂǂ̐Hiɔʊ܂܂Ă顏dʔłͤy(Baker's yeast/Saccharomyces cerevisiae)C(Purple laver)Ȃǂފj_̌olrI[5]

oێƎYƗp[ҏW]

ފj_ێ悷Ƥ̓łǸڵނɕĤDNARNAޗƂȂj_ێƊj_Ƃ̊֌W͖𖾂ȓ_̌҂

RNA𑽗ʂɊ܂ސHiƓIɐYĂRNAIɕ邽߂RNAƂްٍyȂǂy

p[ҏW]

NHiƂď܂╲̂̂ŝĂ邪ʂ̂قǂ͕sł
HiY
ɂؼَ_Ȃǂ̊eǸڵDNARNA܂܂ꤓƉu߂L͂̌ɖ𗧂ĂƍlĂ褎ŝpٸ̑Ǹڵނ̌`œYĂ邪ʂ̂قǂ͕sł額ŋ߂łRNǍ`œY褑̂j_֘Aƕ\Ăꍇ

Ql[ҏW]

֘A[ҏW]

޵ފj_ (DNA)
̋N
ײݸ
RT-PCR
IDNA (cDNA)
jᕪqRNA (snRNA)
j̒ᕪqRNA (snoDNA)
޲RNA (gRNA)

[ҏW]

j_ (DNA, RNA) - NHïSLiNh{j
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2020/03/18 19:00
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(C)NTT Resonant